Like other herpes viruses, EBV infects non dividing cells which are in case of EBV, mature resting B-cells. The virus triggers the cells to start proliferation (going from G0 to G1) by linking to the CD21 molecule and sustains the proliferation by the autocrine production of B cell growth cytokines. In the lytic cycle early and late genes are expressed resulting in a productive infection. In the latency cycle immediate early genes are not expressed but a large amount of genetic information is devoted to the latent state of mitotic B-cells. At least 11 EBV genes are expressed during latent infection. Two of those are small non-coding RNAs (EBER 1 and EBER 2), six encode nuclear proteins (EBNAs and LP) and three encode membrane proteins (LMPs). Together these proteins lead to cellular immortalization which involves both increased cellular survival and proliferation. The EBER genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase and are the most abundant EBV transcripts in Burkitt lymphoma and other latent infected cells. EBERS induce transcription of interleukin10 which acts as an autocrine growth factor of Burkitt lymphoma. In Burkitt lymphoma, the EBV virus up-regulates BCL-2 in concert with a down regulation of c-Myc causing inhibition of apoptosis, thus promoting tumor genesis.
PanPath's REMBRANDT® kit for EBV is designed for active EBV infection. This kit contains a labeled probe that targets the W fragment (3.0 Kb) and shows no cross-hybridization with other viral DNA targets, provided that the hybridization conditions as laid out in the protocol are strictly followed.
PanPath's REMBRANDT® kit for EBER is designed for the detection of latent
EBV infections; however, usage of PanPath's EBER probe will also yield hybridization
signals in tissue sections with lytic EBV infections. The labeled oligonucleotide
probe for EBER provided in this kit is a mixture of 5 oligonucleotides complementary
to EBER type 1 and EBER type 2 RNAs.